At What Cost? State and National Estimates of the Economic Costs of Occupational Licensing

Occupational licensing costs the U.S. economy more than it’s worth. This report provides data showing how licensing costs the economy $6.2 billion in lost output and $183.9 billion in misallocated resources. The authors also argue occupational licensing limits competition and that there is little evidence to support the idea that quality of services are improved when delivered by a licensed professional.


Kleiner, M. M., & Vorotnikov, E. (2018). At What Cost? State and National Estimates of the Economic Costs of Occupational Licensing. Institute for Justice. https://ij.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Licensure_Report_WEB.pdf

Recent Posts

See All