Categorical Exclusions: How Racialized Gender Regulation Reproduces Reentry Hardship

Black trans women are often severely discriminated against in the reentry field, including by reentry service providers. This study utilizes 79 interviews with formerly incarcerated transgender people and social service providers over 7 months in the San Francisco area to provide evidence in support of this finding. With a focus on housing, the author highlights different experiences showing how spaces are segregated based on biology-based definitions of gender and how racist narratives of Black trans women, such as being more aggressive, influence their exclusion from material resources, making their reentry process that much more difficult.


Greene, J. T. (2019). Categorical Exclusions: How Racialized Gender Regulation Reproduces Reentry Hardship. Social Problems, 66(4), 548–563. https://doi.org/10.1093/socpro/spy023

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Open Access Source: https://booksc.org/book/76055197/b95e4d