Fencing Out Opportunity: The Effect of Licensing Regulations on Employment

Occupational licensing hurts rather than helps employment. This report analyzes ten licensed occupations across all 50 states, ranking the states based on the cost vs. benefit, which includes a detailed analysis of the burdens of occupational licensing including age requirements, grade-level requirements, experiential requirements, initial licensure fees, and criminal background prohibitions.


Flanders, W., & Roth, C. (2017). Fencing Out Opportunity: The Effect of Licensing Regulations on Employment (pp.1–23). Wisconsin Institute for Law & Liberty. https://www.will-law.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/FOO2-FINAL-v3.pdf

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