Turning Shackles into Bootstraps: Why Occupational Licensing Reform is the Missing Piece....

States should remove the 'good character' standard for occupational licensing, as well as licensing all together for occupations that don't absolutely need it. This policy report analyzes 3-year recidivism rates by state, compared to that state's occupational licensing regulations. States with higher occupational licensing burdens saw an increase in new-crime recidivism compared to states with lower burdens, which saw a decrease.


Slivinski, S. (2016). Turning Shackles into Bootstraps: Why Occupational Licensing Reform is the Missing Piece of Criminal Justice Reform (Policy Report No. 2016–01; p.11). Center for the Study of Economic Liberty at Arizona State University. https://csel.asu.edu/sites/default/files/2019-09/csel-policy-report-2016-01-turning-shackles-into-bootstraps.pdf