Criminal History, Sex, and Employment: Sex Differences in Ex-Offender Hiring Stigma

The sex of the hiring official may impact the level of racial discrimination involved in hiring people with criminal records. This survey study of random online participants (not necessarily employers) indicates that females are more likely to hire Black men with criminal records over white men with criminal records, while the male participants responded conversely. Overall, the study found that anyone with a criminal record is still less likely to be hired compared to an applicant without a record.


Holloway, C. P., & Wiener, R. L. (2020). Criminal History, Sex, and Employment: Sex Differences in Ex-Offender Hiring Stigma. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy. https://doi.org/10.1111/asap.12192

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