Criminal Record Questions in the Era of “Ban the Box”: Criminal Record Questions

There is very little consistency in how questions about criminal records are asked on job applications, or what information is requested. This audit study also found evidence, although not statistically significant, that ban the box policies may lead to increased discrimination against Black men. The authors provide a host of policy suggestions, including stronger and clearer guidance on what employers should be asking for when it comes to criminal record information.


Vuolo, M., Lageson, S., & Uggen, C. (2017). Criminal Record Questions in the Era of “Ban the Box”: Criminal Record Questions. Criminology & Public Policy, 16(1), 139–165. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9133.12250

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Open Access Source: https://nij.ojp.gov/library/publications/criminal-record-questions-era-ban-box

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