Criminal Stigma, Race, Gender and Employment: An Expanded Assessment of the Consequences of....

People with criminal records are much less likely to be hired than those without and Black and Latino applicants are generally viewed as less favorable than white (especially men and particularly during an in-person application process). This analysis of a 3-part study conducted in Phoenix, Arizona during 2011 and 2012, using both online and in-person applications, as well as a follow-up employer survey, discusses the impact of having a criminal record on employment prospects for Black, Latinx and white men and women. The study is unique in that it discusses differences in gender. The report concludes with policy recommendations, emphasizing the importance of holistic employment preparation prior to release from incarceration.


Decker, Scott H., Cassia, S., & Ortiz, Natalie R. (2014). Criminal Stigma, Race, Gender and Employment: An Expanded Assessment of the Consequences of Imprisonment for Employment (Final Report to the National Institute of Justice No. 2010-MU-MU-004). Arizona State University. https://nij.ojp.gov/library/publications/criminal-stigma-race-gender-and-employment-expanded-assessment-consequences


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