License to Work: A National Study of Burdens from Occupational Licensing

There little correlation between many occupational licenses and public safety. For example, cosmetology, massage therapy and barbering have exponentially greater licensure burdens (such as required training hours and education) compared to professions that are directly related to public health and safety, such as an EMT. This report examines the scope and specific burdens for 102 licensed occupations in the U.S.


Carpenter, D., Knepper, L., Sweetland, K., & McDonald, J. (2017). License to Work: A National Study of Burdens from Occupational Licensing (2nd Edition). Institute for Justice. https://ij.org/wp-content/themes/ijorg/images/ltw2/License_to_Work_2nd_Edition.pdf

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