Sequencing Disadvantage: Barriers to Employment Facing Young Black and White Men with Criminal....

Racism and criminal records play a significant role in whether interpersonal interactions with employers are helpful to job applicants. Building on her previous Milwaukee study that focuses mainly on hiring outcomes, Devah Pager uses this New York City study to analyze and compare the impact of interpersonal interactions during the hiring process on employers' decisions. Pager finds that employers were less likely to give Black men the opportunity to discuss their backgrounds and that white men were more likely to receive a job offer after an interview, whether or not their criminal record was discussed.


Pager, D., Western, B., & Sugie, N. (2009). Sequencing Disadvantage: Barriers to Employment Facing Young Black and White Men with Criminal Records. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 623, 195–213. JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40375896

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Open Access Source: https://booksc.org/book/39513103/4ef613

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