Exclusion and Extraction: Criminal Justice Contact and the Reallocation of Labor

The carceral state is a highly functioning labor market institution that both excludes people from the labor market and extracts labor. This article provides a thorough review of different studies and analyses (many of which are included in this digest) that highlight the varied impacts of incarceration on the economy. These include the concealment of unemployment through incarceration, the many ways a criminal record contributes to unemployment, the use and exploitation of prison labor, and forcing employment on formerly incarcerated people.


Smith & Simon. (2020). Exclusion and Extraction: Criminal Justice Contact and the Reallocation of Labor. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, 6(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.7758/rsf.2020.6.1.01

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Open Access Source: https://www.rsfjournal.org/content/rsfjss/6/1/1.full.pdf